First published April 1, 1986 - More info
Isolated lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation, defined as a transient sphincteric relaxation unaccompanied by esophageal peristalsis, has been shown to precede most episodes of gastroesophageal reflux in humans. We studied the genesis of isolated LES relaxation in anesthetized opossums by observing the response of four components of the deglutition reflex (mylohyoid electrical activity, pharyngeal contraction, esophageal peristalsis, and LES relaxation) to pharyngeal tactile stimulation, electrical stimulation of superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) afferents or cervical vagal efferents, and to balloon distention of the esophageal body. A single pharyngeal stroking evoked isolated LES relaxation in 56% of 160 instances. The proportion of isolated relaxations in response to SLN electrical stimulation varied inversely with the stimulus frequency, occurring in 64% of the responses at 5 Hz and 4% of the responses at 30 Hz. A full four-component deglutition sequence was most likely to occur at the higher frequencies of SLN electrical stimulation. Esophageal balloon distention elicited isolated LES relaxations or no response at low distending volumes, whereas at higher volumes LES relaxation and esophageal contraction predominated. Isolated LES relaxation had significantly less magnitude than relaxations accompanied by esophageal contractions. Bilateral cervical vagotomy abolished all LES and esophageal body responses induced by pharyngeal stroking and SLN stimulation, and rendered the esophageal body and LES less responsive to small volumes of distention. Vagal efferent stimulation produced isolated LES relaxation at lower frequency stimulation and LES relaxation with esophageal contractions at higher frequency stimulation. These studies show that isolated LES relaxation represents incomplete expression of either the deglutitive reflex or the peripheral reflex mediating secondary peristalsis.