Recently published - More

Abstract

Microbial clearance by eukaryotes relies on complex and coordinated processes that remain poorly understood. The gasotransmitter carbon monoxide (CO) is generated by the stress-responsive enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by Hmox1), which is highly induced in macrophages in response to bacterial infection. HO-1 deficiency results in inadequate pathogen clearance, exaggerated tissue damage, and increased mortality. Here, we determined that macrophage-generated CO promotes ATP production and release by bacteria, which then activates the Nacht, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NALP3) inflammasome, intensifying bacterial killing. Bacterial killing defects in HO-1–deficient murine macrophages were restored by administration of CO. Moreover, increased CO levels enhanced the bacterial clearance capacity of human macrophages and WT murine macrophages. CO-dependent bacterial clearance required the NALP3 inflammasome, as CO did not increase bacterial killing in macrophages isolated from NALP3-deficient or caspase-1–deficient mice. IL-1β cleavage and secretion were impaired in HO-1–deficient macrophages, and CO-dependent processing of IL-1β required the presence of bacteria-derived ATP. We found that bacteria remained viable to generate and release ATP in response to CO. The ATP then bound to macrophage nucleotide P2 receptors, resulting in activation of the NALP3/IL-1β inflammasome to amplify bacterial phagocytosis by macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that macrophage-derived CO permits efficient and coordinated regulation of the host innate response to invading microbes.

Authors

Barbara Wegiel ... Miguel P. Soares, Leo E. Otterbein

×

Abstract

The demonstrated ability to differentiate both human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) holds great promise for both regenerative medicine and liver disease research. Here, we determined that, despite an immature phenotype, differentiated HLCs are permissive to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and mount an interferon response to HCV infection in vitro. HLCs differentiated from hESCs and hiPSCs could be engrafted in the liver parenchyma of immune-deficient transgenic mice carrying the urokinase-type plasminogen activator gene driven by the major urinary protein promoter. The HLCs were maintained for more than 3 months in the livers of chimeric mice, in which they underwent further maturation and proliferation. These engrafted and expanded human HLCs were permissive to in vivo infection with HCV-positive sera and supported long-term infection of multiple HCV genotypes. Our study demonstrates efficient engraftment and in vivo HCV infection of human stem cell–derived hepatocytes and provides a model to study chronic HCV infection in patient-derived hepatocytes, action of antiviral therapies, and the biology of HCV infection.

Authors

Arnaud Carpentier ... Stephen M. Feinstone, T. Jake Liang

×

Abstract

Sensitization to foods often occurs in infancy, without a known prior oral exposure, suggesting that alternative exposure routes contribute to food allergy. Here, we tested the hypothesis that peanut proteins activate innate immune pathways in the skin that promote sensitization. We exposed mice to peanut protein extract on undamaged areas of skin and observed that repeated topical exposure to peanut allergens led to sensitization and anaphylaxis upon rechallenge. In mice, this epicutaneous peanut exposure induced sensitization to the peanut components Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, which is also observed in human peanut allergy. Both crude peanut extract and Ara h 2 alone served as adjuvants, as both induced a bystander sensitization that was similar to that induced by the atopic dermatitis-associated staphylococcal enterotoxin B. In cultured human keratinocytes and in murine skin, peanut extract directly induced cytokine expression. Moreover, topical peanut extract application induced an alteration dependent on the IL-33 receptor ST2 in skin-draining DCs, resulting in Th2 cytokine production from T cells. Together, our data support the hypothesis that peanuts are allergenic due to inherent adjuvant activity and suggest that skin exposure to food allergens contributes to sensitization to foods in early life.

Authors

Leticia Tordesillas ... Hugh A. Sampson, M. Cecilia Berin

×

Abstract

The signal-responsive E3 ubiquitin ligase pellino 1 (PELI1) regulates TLR and T cell receptor (TCR) signaling and contributes to the maintenance of autoimmunity; however, little is known about the consequence of mutations that result in upregulation of PELI1. Here, we developed transgenic mice that constitutively express human PELI1 and determined that these mice have a shorter lifespan due to tumor formation. Constitutive expression of PELI1 resulted in ligand-independent hyperactivation of B cells and facilitated the development of a wide range of lymphoid tumors, with prominent B cell infiltration observed across multiple organs. PELI1 directly interacted with the oncoprotein B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (BCL6) and induced lysine 63–mediated BCL6 polyubiquitination. In samples from patients with diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs), PELI1 expression levels positively correlated with BCL6 expression, and PELI1 overexpression was closely associated with poor prognosis in DLBCLs. Together, these results suggest that increased PELI1 expression and subsequent induction of BCL6 promotes lymphomagenesis and that this pathway may be a potential target for therapeutic strategies to treat B cell lymphomas.

Authors

Hye-Young Park ... Doo Hyun Chung, Chang-Woo Lee

×

Abstract

Ischemia is a leading cause of acute kidney injury. Kidney ischemia is associated with loss of cellular ion homeostasis; however, the pathways that underlie ion homeostasis dysfunction are poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the nonselective cation channel transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) in a murine model of kidney ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. TRPM2-deficient mice were resistant to ischemic injury, as reflected by improved kidney function, reduced histologic damage, suppression of proapoptotic pathways, and reduced inflammation. Moreover, pharmacologic TRPM2 inhibition was also protective against I/R injury. TRPM2 was localized mainly in kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells, and studies in chimeric mice indicated that the effects of TRPM2 are due to expression in parenchymal cells rather than hematopoietic cells. TRPM2-deficient mice had less oxidative stress and lower levels of NADPH oxidase activity after ischemia. While RAC1 is a component of the NADPH oxidase complex, its relation to TRPM2 and kidney ischemic injury is unknown. Following kidney ischemia, TRPM2 promoted RAC1 activation, with active RAC1 physically interacting with TRPM2 and increasing TRPM2 expression at the cell membrane. Finally, inhibition of RAC1 reduced oxidant stress and ischemic injury in vivo. These results demonstrate that TRPM2-dependent RAC1 activation increases oxidant stress and suggest that therapeutic approaches targeting TRPM2 and/or RAC1 may be effective in reducing ischemic kidney injury.

Authors

Guofeng Gao ... Barbara A. Miller, W. Brian Reeves

×

Abstract

A major clinical hurdle for the management of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) in patients is the resistance of tumors to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and their subsequent development into castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). While recent studies have identified potential pathways involved in CRPC development, the drivers of CRPC remain largely undefined. Here we determined that nuclear receptor coactivator 2 (NCoA2, also known as SRC-2), which is frequently amplified or overexpressed in patients with metastatic PCa, mediates development of CRPC. In a murine model, overexpression of NCoA2 in the prostate epithelium resulted in neoplasia and, in combination with Pten deletion, promoted the development of metastasis-prone cancer. Moreover, depletion of NCoA2 in PTEN-deficient mice prevented the development of CRPC. In human androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells, androgen signaling suppressed NCoA2 expression, and NCoA2 overexpression in murine prostate tumors resulted in hyperactivation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling, promoting tumor malignance. Analysis of PCa patient samples revealed a strong correlation among NCoA2-mediated signaling, disease progression, and PCa recurrence. Taken together, our findings indicate that androgen deprivation induces NCoA2, which in turn mediates activation of PI3K signaling and promotes PCa metastasis and CRPC development. Moreover, these results suggest that the inhibition of NCoA2 has potential for PCa therapy.

Authors

Jun Qin ... Sophia Y. Tsai, Ming-Jer Tsai

×

Abstract

Levels of pituitary growth hormone (GH), a metabolic homeostatic factor with strong lipolytic activity, are decreased in obese individuals. GH declines prior to the onset of weight gain in response to excess caloric intake and hyperinsulinemia; however, the mechanism by which GH is reduced is not clear. We used transgenic mice expressing the human GH (hGH) gene, GH1, to assess the effect of high caloric intake on expression as well as the local chromosome structure of the intact GH1 locus. Animals exposed to 3 days of high caloric intake exhibited hyperinsulinemia without hyperglycemia and a decrease in both hGH synthesis and secretion, but no difference in endogenous production of murine GH. Efficient GH1 expression requires a long-range intrachromosomal interaction between remote enhancer sequences and the proximal promoter region through “looping” of intervening chromatin. High caloric intake disrupted this interaction and decreased both histone H3/H4 hyperacetylation and RNA polymerase II occupancy at the GH1 promoter. Incorporation of physical activity muted the effects of excess caloric intake on insulin levels, GH1 promoter hyperacetylation, chromosomal architecture, and expression. These results indicate that energy homeostasis alters postnatal hGH synthesis through dynamic changes in the 3-dimensional chromatin structure of the GH1 locus, including structures required for cell type specificity during development.

Authors

Hana Vakili, Yan Jin, Peter A. Cattini

×

Abstract

Cardiac Purkinje cells are important triggers of ventricular arrhythmias associated with heritable and acquired syndromes; however, the mechanisms responsible for this proarrhythmic behavior are incompletely understood. Here, through transcriptional profiling of genetically labeled cardiomyocytes, we identified expression of Purkinje cell protein-4 (Pcp4), a putative regulator of calmodulin and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) signaling, exclusively within the His-Purkinje network. Using Pcp4-null mice and acquired cardiomyopathy models, we determined that reduced expression of PCP4 is associated with CaMKII activation, abnormal electrophysiology, dysregulated intracellular calcium handling, and proarrhythmic behavior in isolated Purkinje cells. Pcp4-null mice also displayed profound autonomic dysregulation and arrhythmic behavior in vivo. Together, these results demonstrate that PCP4 regulates cardiac excitability through both Purkinje cell–autonomous and central mechanisms and identify this modulator of CaMKII signaling as a potential arrhythmia-susceptibility candidate.

Authors

Eugene E. Kim ... Mario Delmar, Glenn I. Fishman

×

Abstract

Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is well recognized as an adverse event associated with implantable medical devices that contain allergenic materials like nickel; however, other cutaneous consequences of chronic exposure to allergens in implanted devices are not well understood. Here, we present a clinical case of Marjolin’s ulcer, an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that developed in response to chronic ACD caused by an orthopedic implant. We used a standard murine model of contact hypersensitivity to determine whether chronic ACD promotes skin carcinogenesis. Chronic application of 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB) to carcinogen-treated skin led to the development of papillomas and aggressive SCC. DNFB-driven chronic ACD was marked by type 2 inflammation, which mediated skin carcinogenesis, as mice unable to mount an inflammatory response were less likely to develop skin tumors. Importantly, we found similar tumor-promoting inflammation surrounding the SCC in our patient. Our findings demonstrate that chronic ACD caused by constant exposure to an allergen can promote tumorigenesis at skin sites with preexisting cancer-initiated cells. Moreover, our results suggest that patients with implantable devices placed in close proximity to the skin should be monitored for ACD and highlight the importance of patch testing prior to the placement of such devices.

Authors

Shadmehr Demehri ... David M. Sheinbein, Wayne M. Yokoyama

×




Advertisement

October 2014


124-10-cover

October 2014 Issue

On the cover:
Celebrating 90 years of publishing scientific discoveries in medicine

This month, the JCI celebrates 90 years of publishing outstanding scientific discoveries in biomedical research. On page 4135, editor-in-chief Howard Rockman reflects on the spirit of the JCI that has endured since our inaugural issue in October 1924.

×
Jci_impact_2014_10

October 2014 Impact

JCI Impact is a digest of the research, reviews, and other features published in each month's issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

×

Review Series - More

Gut Microbiome

Series edited by Martin J. Blaser

The human gastrointestinal tract harbors approximately one hundred trillion microbial cells, collectively known as the gut microbiome. We have been aware of these friendly bacteria for around a century, but we are only now beginning to appreciate their influence in multiple aspects of human physiology and disease. Our understanding of the gut microbiome is constantly evolving and is currently being aided by new technologies and approaches that combine ecological principles with biomedical techniques. These new studies take into account both the pathological and commensal aspects of the microbes that inhabit our bodies. Reviews in this series explore how perturbation of the microbiome not only contributes to disease, but also helps to reveal its function; the impact of the microbiome on the metabolism of therapeutics and dietary nutrients; the contributions of commensal bacteria to disease, including cancer and cardiovascular disease; and the role of the microbiome in the development and maintenance of the immune system.

×